FreSHtracer™ is the first newly-designed fluorescent dye in the world to safely measure the level of GSH in living cells. FreSHtracer™ is a small molecular probe that easily penetrates into cells and all cellular components. FreSHtracer™ works by binding to the Thiol groups (those SH groups) on GSH.
When FreSHtracer™ is bound to GSH, it fluoresces at a peak of 510nm (F510) and when it unbinds from GSH, it continues to fluoresce at a peak of 580nm (F580). By measuring the fluorescent amount of F510 to F580, we can measure the amount of GSH throughout the cell. The binding and unbinding of FreSHtracer™ to GSH is completely reversible, so it will not consume the cell’s GSH by measuring it.
- Cell Therapy
- Quality Control of Stem Cells
- Cell Culture Media
- Pharmaceutical Drug / Food / Antioxidant Screening
Glutathione is a major antioxidant in cells. GSH is a tri-peptide formed from glutamate, cysteine, and glycine. Thiol of the cysteine is the functional residue for reacting with ROS. GSH exists abundantly in cells with millimolar concentration.
If Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are not quickly disposed of, they will cause damage to our cells and that can lead to various problems, aging, cancer or degenerative diseases. To remove ROS immediately, our bodies utilize antioxidants, antioxidant Vitamins C and E, peroxisomes, and a variety of specialized enzymes to remove ROS. However, perhaps the most important molecule in the removal of ROS is GSH.
GSH can react with almost kind of ROS, whereas vit C and E do not directly react with hydrogen peroxide or superoxide. Therefore, cellular GSH levels can be used for estimating intracellular redox status. However, there had not been direct and reliable tools for measuring cellular GSH.
Role of ROS(Reactive Oxygen Species) in Stem Cells
Many types of stem cells reside in oxygen deprived corners of the body and thus depend on the metabolism of sugar without oxygen for self-renewal of the stem cell. Under these conditions, activation of cellular pathways increase the production of ROS that may induce oxidative damage of cellular components. Thus, high antioxidant capacity is required for protecting stem cells from ROS-induced damage. By contrast, under normal oxygen culture conditions, stem cells show enhanced proliferation that can affect the inherent qualities of stem cells. Our new developed method may provide key information on cell culture conditions for maintenance of proper proliferation rates in stem cells by measuring and monitoring GSH levels.